8 मार्च 2013

Phil Rosenzweig criticize pseudo scientific tendencies in the explanation of business performance in specific books (those that offer secrets of guaranteed business success)


Phil Rosenzweig criticize pseudo scientific tendencies in the explanation of business performance in  specific books (those that offer secrets of guaranteed business success) 
The Halo Effect is a 2007 book by business academic Phil Rosenzweig that criticize pseudo scientific tendencies in the explanation of business performance. As well as many business magazines and newspapers, it targets specific books (those that offer secrets of guaranteed business success) and academic research published by business schools. It outlines nine "delusions": mistakes of reasoning that undermine these recipes for business success. In light of these mistakes, Rosenzweig argues, much of business writing is what Richard Feynman called "cargo cult science", having the superficial trappings of science but operating at the level of story-telling. The book also considers some more scientific business research, whose conclusions are more rigorous but do not promise a simple recipe for success. The subtitle of the 2007 US edition is "and the eight other business delusions that deceive managers" while that of the 2008 UK edition is "How Managers Let Themselves Be Deceived".
The book was named "Business Book of the Year" 2007 at the Frankfurt Book Fair It has been described as part of a trend for books that encourage evidence-based practice in business research.
The author told reporters the book had been written over the course of 25 years of experience in business consultancy and academia. Rosenzweig earned his PhD at the University of Pennsylvania, before serving on the faculty at Harvard Business School and later at the International Institute for Management Development in Switzerland.His corporate career included seven years at Hewlett-Packard.

Targets

The book is critical of a genre of business books including In Search of ExcellenceGood to Great,What Really Works and Built to Last. It finds similar faults with a swathe of business journalism.

[edit]Nine delusions


  1. The Halo Effect of the book's title refers to the cognitive bias in which the perception of one quality is contaminated by a more readily available quality (for example good-looking people being rated as more intelligent). In the context of business, observers think they are making judgments of a company's customer-focus, quality of leadership or other virtues, but their judgement is contaminated by indicators of company performance such as share price or profitability. Correlations of, for example, customer-focus with business success then become meaningless, because success was the basis for the measure of customer focus.
  2. The Delusion of Correlation and Causality: mistakenly thinking that correlation is causation.
  3. The Delusion of Single Explanations: arguments that factor X improves performance by 40% and factor Y improves by another 40%, so both at once will result in an 80% improvement. The fallacy is that X and Y might be very strongly correlated. E.g. X might improve performance by causing Y.
  4. The Delusion of Connecting the Winning Dots: looking only at successful companies and finding their common features, without comparing them against unsuccessful companies.
  5. The Delusion of Rigorous Research: Some authors boast of the amount of data that they have collected, as though that in itself made the conclusions of the research valid.
  6. The Delusion of Lasting Success: the "secrets of success" books imply that lasting success is achievable, if only managers will follow their recommended approach. Rosenzweig argues that truly lasting success (outperforming the market for more than a generation) never happens in business.
  7. The Delusion of Absolute Performance: market performance is down to what competitors do as well as what the company itself does. A company can do everything right and yet still fall behind.
  8. The Delusion of the Wrong End of the Stick: getting cause the wrong way round. E.g. successful companies have a Corporate Social Responsibility policy. Should we infer that CSR contributes to success, or that profitable companies have money to spend on CSR?
  9. The Delusion of Organisational Physics: the idea that business performance is non-chaotically determined by discoverable factors, so that there are rules for success out there if only we can find them

Interview with Phil Rosenzweig, Author of The Halo Effect by steve millar 


QUESTION: Can we start with a little personal background? We know from The Halo Effectjacket cover that you have a doctorate from Wharton, have taught at Harvard Business School, and are currently a professor at IMD in Switzerland.

ROSENZWEIG: I’m originally from California, and worked at Hewlett-Packard from 1979 until 1986 – at which point I shifted to a career as a business school professor. I was at Harvard from 1990 to 1996, and since 1996 I’ve have been on the faculty at IMD. We work mainly in executive education, so I work closely with managers from a variety of companies.

QUESTION: What are your areas of expertise in business? Do you consider yourself a strategist? How did you get started on the research that led to The Halo Effect?

ROSENZWEIG: My work with executives has led me to conclude that most of them are smart and hard-working, but have a limited ability to think rigorously and critically, especially about business research. As a result, they tend to be gullible and willing to believe research that claims to give the secrets to high performance. Unfortunately, for all the appearance of solid research, much of this work – which includes some of the biggest best sellers in recent years – is badly flawed and nowhere near as rigorous as it claims to be. My book tries to give managers the tools they need to be more discerning, more appropriately skeptical about what they read, and to be more intelligent consumers of management research. I hope to raise the level of discussion – and to set a higher standard for those who produce business research, including consultants, gurus, journalists, and professors like me!

QUESTION: Could you give us a short synopsis of the main themes of The Halo Effect?

ROSENZWEIG: A great deal of thinking the business world is shaped by mistakes in logic and errors in judgment – which I call “delusions.” In my book, I identify nine delusions, but they are not equally important. The most important one is the halo effect, which speaks of data independence and bias. Once researchers make that mistake, others tend to follow. As a result, researchers or consultants may claim to have found the keys to high performance, but often they have the causality backwards – rather than finding what drives high performance, they have found how high-performing companies tend to be described, which is a very different matter!

QUESTION: Do you think that some of the delusions noted in the book – the halo effect, single explanations, correlation and causality, rigorous research and lasting success – derive from our psychological need for simplicity and tidiness of cause-and-effect thinking? Is some just due to the desire of authors to sell books?

ROSENZWEIG: Probably some of both. No question, the halo effect is a very common mental shortcut that is born out of a natural desire for simplicity. But it is probably also true that some researchers don’t want to face up to the problem of data independence because they are content to sell simple stories.
QUESTION: The Chicago Cubs have had a down and now (currently) up year. When they were awful, the sports media was positing a broken organization, an inept farm system, an over-the-hill manager, and incompetent, prima donna players. Now that they’ve been on a winning streak, it’s a shrewd management team, with a productive farm system, a rejuvenated manager, and unselfish players. Is this the halo effect in practice? Is the press primarily responsible for this type of thinking due to their short-term focus?

ROSENZWEIG: This is a great example of the halo effect – and we see it frequently in sports. Exactly right! When a team is doing well, we tend to describe it in very different terms from when it was doing poorly.

QUESTION: Nassim Nicholas Taleb, author of Fooled by Randomness and The Black Swan, has extolled The Halo Effect as “one of the most important management books of all time.” Like you, Taleb rails against what he considers the delusions of those who think only in black and white with no grey, who deal only in certainty with no randomness, who seek only simple explanations, who think that life is linear, symmetric, and bell-shaped. Could Taleb’s diatribes fit into The Halo Effect?

ROSENZWEIG: Nassim is concerned with misconceptions and errors in thinking that pervade the world of financial markets. My concern is with the world of management and business performance. So we are looking at somewhat different fields, but our approaches are complementary and some of our ideas are very similar. I like his work a great deal, and am glad that he has also liked my book.

QUESTION: If business success is much less tidy and predictable than bestselling business book authors would have us believe, what are the implications for research and intelligence? If we cannot identify a single smoking pistol, is it all about increasing the odds of success?

ROSENZWEIG: Yes, trying to improve the probabilities of success is the way we should look at things. Business performance is, after all, relative and not absolute – we are in competition with other companies, and our success is also affected by what they do. There are not, therefore, formulas that can reliably and predictably lead to high performance. Our task as managers is to make judgments, under conditions of uncertainty, that stand the best chance of improving our likelihood of success in a competitive market setting.

QUESTION: You note methodological flaws in several of the designs that drive bestselling business book research. Do you agree with those who think most such designs are too weak to support any definitive conclusions? I have espoused randomized experiments and panel designs (time series with control groups) as exemplary for business and intelligence. Do you often see these designs with bestselling business book research?

ROSENZWEIG: Some well-known best sellers, such as In Search of Excellence and Blue Ocean Strategy, do indeed have problems of research design – they only examined successful companies, and therefore cannot say what makes successful companies different from less successful ones. The problem with Built to Last and Good to Great is different: the design, which used matched pairs, isn’t bad, but much of the data they relied on are not independent of performance, which is the very thing they are trying to explain. The problem here is not one of design, but of the validity of data.
More generally, some things in business do lend themselves to randomized experiments – such as retailing, pricing, merchandising, customer service, warranties, and more. Any time we have many discrete transactions, we can attempt randomized experiments – we can assign different treatments and compare results. But that approach doesn’t work for the big questions like mergers and acquisitions, or new market entry, or reorganizations. These things are few in number, infrequent, and hugely consequential – and therefore not the stuff of experiments. So we have to rely on other designs. That’s inevitable – but since we have to gather data from different sources, we also have to guard against certain kinds of bias, notably those that are based on performance.

QUESTION: In The Halo Effect, you mention the thinking of Michael Porter from Harvard Business School that business performance is driven by strategy and execution. Robert Kaplan and David Norton of Balanced Scorecard fame speak of strategy as hypothesis, where companies posit “if we do this, then results will be that,” or “the more we do of this, the less will happen of that.” Do you think business strategy can be adequately represented by hypotheses similar to those from science? Do you see more bottom-up strategy driven by randomized experiments? If so, what implications does that have for business performance evaluation?

ROSENZWEIG: I like much of what Porter, and Kaplan and Norton have written. That said, it is important to remember that a hypothesis in scientific experimentation – say, chemistry or physics – is very different from company performance in business, in that a chemical reaction or some physical phenomenon is generally absolute, not relative. In business, the key dependent variable – company performance – is better understood as relative, not absolute. And that changes everything. We simply cannot expect the predictability and replicability of the hard sciences when it comes to studying business performance.

QUESTION: Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton from Stanford have written a best seller,Hard Facts, Dangerous Half-Truths & Total Nonsense, Profiting from Evidence-Based Management, which attempts to do for business what evidence-based medicine has done for health care. Among the tenets of evidence-based management are experiments and other powerful designs for evaluating strategy, along with a prototype management mentality and the feedback of strong intelligence. What are your thoughts on this development for business?

ROSENZWEIG: I like Hard Facts by Pfeffer and Sutton very much. I would only add two comments. First, everyone will quickly agree that “evidence” is important, but that only begs the question – we also have to agree on what constitutes good evidence! Unfortunately, the halo effect and other examples of bias have the effect of undermining the quality of evidence. So it’s not enough to emphasize “evidence” – we have to be clear about what good evidence really means. Second, the origins of evidence-based management come from medicine, and here again we have to be careful. In medicine, things such as patient recovery are absolute, not relative – I can have a ward full of patients and they can all recover thanks to a good treatment. The recovery of one patient is not dependent on the lack of recovery of someone else. In business, however, performance is relative more than absolute; therefore, the way we think about our dependent variable – our desired performance outcome – will be somewhat different. I like the basic tenets of evidence-based management, but we have to be careful when we draw simple parallels from medicine.

QUESTION: What has been the feedback/fallout from business academics and consultants over The Halo Effect? Has Jim Collins, author of Good to Great, called?

ROSENZWEIG: The response from colleagues and managers has been excellent – I think a lot of people are tired of the sort of nonsense that is being peddled and are ready for a clearer way of thinking. I have not heard directly from the gurus that I criticize, and don’t expect to – they wouldn’t see the benefit of giving me any more attention than I am already getting!

QUESTION: Where are you heading currently with your teaching, research, and consulting? Has The Halo Effect reshaped your work?

ROSENZWEIG: I continue to work with companies at IMD on questions of strategy and organization, but am now doing a bit more about rigorous thinking and understanding business performance.

QUESTION: Do you consult with business? If so, what are the main foci of that consulting derived from The Halo Effect? Do you see positive practical applications of your work?

ROSENZWEIG: At least one company has approached me to try to put ideas from my book into application. This company is asking: Do the metrics we have been using really capture the appropriate phenomena, and are they valid measures, or do we have problems of data validity and lack of independence? These are good questions that all companies should be asking.

QUESTION: The focus of the Business Intelligence Network (BeyeNETWORK.com) isbusiness intelligence (BI). BI can be viewed as the use of data, technology, and analytics to help business evaluate, optimize, and manage its strategies and business processes. The takeaways from The Halo Effect are certainly pertinent for BI. What advice would you have for management that wants to use intelligence as a differentiator?

ROSENZWEIG: My advice is for managers not to be impressed with the quantity of data in a given study, but to insist on the quality of data. Be sure that your independent variables are truly independent of the things you are seeking to explain. Also, watch out for the survivor bias: choose your sample population and time period in such a way as to capture the full phenomenon, not just the survivors.

QUESTION: Be an optimist and a realist. Over time, where do you see business headed with the research and intelligence it will increasingly accumulate?

ROSENZWEIG: Business management and leadership is a mix of hard and soft, of rigorous analytics and of intangibles like confidence and inspiration. I would never suggest that business is only about intelligence and rigor – it is art as well as science. The best managers, I think, have the ability to inspire and motivate others, but also are clear-eyed about analysis, about probabilities, and about the fundamentally uncertain nature of performance in a competitive market economy. There will never be predictable formulas that can ensure high performance – the nature of competition makes that impossible – but there are ways that business intelligence can improve our abilities to execute and be more efficient.


source :wikipedia/haloeffect/book & e bay network 

How to Choose a Role Model


The term role model generally means any "person who serves as an example, whose behavior is emulated by other
ROLE MODEL:
WHAT ?
HOW ?
WHY ?
WHEN ?
WHERE ?View blog
WHOSE ?

WHICH SITUATION ?


आज देश में युवाशक्ति की बात होती है सबको पता है कि अगर देश को सुधारना है तो युवाओं को आगे आना होगा क्योंकि उनमें ऊर्जा है, नयी सोच है , ज्यादा शक्ति है जिसके कारण वो देश को आगे ले जा सकते हैं। भारत के युवाओं के सामने अमेरिका के राष्ट्रपति बराक ओबामा को यूनिवर्सल रूप में आदर्श के रूप में प्रस्तुत किया जाता है लेकिन शायद भारत का कोई ही ऐसा शक्स होगा जो कि देश के पूरे युवाओं के लिए आदर्श का केन्द्र होगा। ध्यान देने वाली बात यह है कि हम यहां पर किसी के पसंद और ना पसंद की बात नहीं कर रहे हैं बल्कि हम बात कर रहे हैं उन आदर्श व्यक्ति की जो लोगों के लिए रोल मॉडल और आइडल होता है। हमने इस विषय पर कुछ युवागण और कुछ देश और समाज के सम्मान प्रतिनिधियों से बात की जिन्होंने आज के युवाओं को बड़े करीब से देखा है और समझा है।
जिस निष्कर्ष पर हम पहुंचे हैं उससे तो यही मतलब निकलता है कि आज बढ़ती सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी और नेम-फेम के चक्कर में देश के युवाओं के शब्दकोश से रोल मॉडल और आदर्श शब्द ही गुम हो गया है। आज युवा पीढ़ी दौलत-शौहरत को ही अपनी सफलता का मूल मंत्र मानते हैं

लखनऊ विश्वविद्यालय के पत्रकारिता विभाग के अस्सिटेंट प्रोफेसर डॉ. मुकुल श्रीवास्तव, जिन्होंने अपनी मंजिल बेहद ही कम उम्र में पायी है, जिनकी बेबाकी और बातें उनके छात्र-छात्राओं के लिए आदर्श का काम किया करती हैं, का कहना है कि आज का युवाओं को तर्क करने की शक्ति है, क्योंकि वो इंटरनेट की दुनिया में जी रहा है। उसके पास उसके सवालों के जवाब है, वो तर्क करना जानता है, वो आसानी से लोगों की सुनता नहीं बल्कि वो लोगों के बताये नुस्खे में अपना अनोखा रास्ता निकालता है जो कि आगे बढ़ने के लिए जरूरी भी है औऱ सही भी। युवा का मतलब ही जोश होता है जिसका साफ उदाहरण दिल्ली के जंतर-मंतर पर दिखायी पड़ा है। हां आज का युवा तुरंत फैसला चाहता है इसलिए आक्रोशित भी है लेकिन यह भी क्षणिक है क्योंकि बदलावी युग की दरकार है पारदर्शिता, जो कि जिस दिन हो जायेगी, आक्रोश कम हो जायेगा रही बात गुस्से की तो युवा का मतलब जोश से ही होता है इसे सकारात्मक रूप से लेना चाहिए।

कुछ समय पहले एक टीवी चैनल पर मैग्सेससे पुरस्कार विजेता अरविंद केजरीवाल ने कहा था कि आज के युवाओं के पास तार्किक शक्ति है जिनकी वजह से देश की सूरत बदल सकती है। आज स्मार्ट फोन का जमाना है। आज हर चीज ओपन है जिसकी वजह से आज की युवा पीढ़ी काफी खुल गयी है जो कि बदलते परिदृश्य में सही भी है। यही ऊर्जा उन्हे देश की तस्वीर बदलने में मदद भी करेगी।

सलमान खान की लगातार हिट फिल्में साबित करती हैं कि वो लोगों की पहली पसंद हैं। छोटे शहरों और गांवो में बेहद लोकप्रिय सलमान खान के फैंस का मानना है कि सलमान खान उन लोगों के लिए आदर्श का काम करते हैं जिन्हें जिंदगी में हारकर भी आगे बढ़ सकते हैं, इसलिए  वो लोगों के लिए आदर्श हैं।

मशहूर कवि डॉ. कुमार विश्वास भी युवा पीढ़ी का प्रतिनिधित्व करते हैं। उनके मुताबिक सक्सेस का शार्ट कर्ट नहीं होता है। लेकिन आज के आक्रोशित युवाओं के लिए उनका भी कहना है कि नयी पीढ़ी को बेवकूफ बनाना आसान नहीं है। उसे पारदर्शिता की दरकार है, इसलिए वो बहस करती है। मेरी नजर में यह सही है क्योंकि बिना बहस के निवारण नहीं होता है।

भारतीय क्रिकेट टीम के कप्तान महेन्द्र सिंह धोनी आज भले ही सवालों के घेरे में हैं लेकिन उन्होंने युवा शक्ति की वो मिसाल पेश की है जिसे कर पाना हर किसी के बस में नहीं। गेम के दो फार्मेट में भारत को विश्वकप दिलाने वाले धोनी ने भी कहा था कि उनका मुकाबला हमेशा से खुद से होता है वो किसी को अपना रोल मॉडल नहीं मानते हैं।

यूपी के सीएम अखिलेश यादव देश के सबसे युवा सीएम हैं, लेकिन वो भी आज आदर्श व्यक्तित्व के रूप में शामिल नहीं। गोरखपुर मेडिकल छात्र-छात्राओं के मुताबिक अखिलेश यादव पर भी उनके पिता की तरह पुरानी सोच हावी है वो कभी भी युवाओं के लिए रोल मॉडल नहीं हो सकते हैं।

कांग्रेस युवराज राहुल गांधी कभी लोगों के लिए आदर्श का काम करते थे, लेकिन पिछले कई एपीसोड उनके फ्लॉप साबित हुए हैं। इसलिए लोगों की नजर में वो कोई आदर्श व्यक्तित्व नहीं रखते हैं,यह कहना है पूर्वांचल विश्वविद्यालय के छात्र-छात्राओं का। अब राहुल गांधी युवाओं की नजर में युवा नहीं हैं और ना ही आदर्श व्यक्तित्व हैं।
डायबीटीक क्लिनिक के डॉ सत्यजित साहू का कहना है की युवाओं के रोल मॉडल में स्वास्थ्य जागरूकता का भी समावेश होना चाहिए .
वैसे रोल  माडल एक व्यक्ति के लिये बहुत सारे भी हो सकते है ,जैसे बिज़नेस के लिये अलग और घर के लिये अलग पर स्वास्थ्य का विषय हर जगह कॉमन है .
छत्तीसगढ़ राज्य के विषय में यह बात किस पर लागु होती है यह देखने की बात है ?


How to Choose a Role Model ?

1 Remember that only deities are perfect
. God may be perfect, but people aren't. Don't expect any role model to be perfect; they may make mistakes. Of course, if you want a perfect role model, you might want to go with Jesus Christ or Buddha or another religion's god.

Look for someone who is living life the way you would like to.
 If you want to be a famous author, your role model could be someone who has been successful at writing. If you have always wanted to be a nurse, your role model could be someone at your local hospital who is dedicated to their job and someone who you look up to for their achievements.

Look for key characteristics that you want to achieve
Choose a role model who may have done something you find admirable, such as raised a lot of money for charity, saved lots of lives, helped people in need or discovered the cure for a disease. Find someone who has good characteristics that you don't have (yet!). Here are some things to think about:
  • Choose someone who has a sense of purpose. A good role model would be someone who knows who they are. You don't want someone who seems perfect but doesn't have a sense of purpose. You want someone who won't pretend to be someone they are not and will not fake just to suit other people.
  • Consider someone who thinks it is alright to be unique, even if that means accepting some ridicule. They should make you feel good about being yourself, they shouldn't make you compare yourself to them and wish you were pretty.
  • Consider someone who interacts well with others, and someone who is kind and can communicate well with people. Like a teacher. People are easy to understand and emulate when they communicate well.
  • Consider someone who doesn't always take credit for what they do
  • 4 Focus on what is good; don't emulate what is bad.
  • Further Tip:
·          
    • Emulate him or her until you are a role model yourself; that's how you can know you have mastered the trait.
    • Keep in mind that having a role model does not mean you become exactly like that person. Remember to retain your individuality. Emulate them, but put your own individuality into the things they do.
    • Still listen to other people. Sometimes we can be blind to our own mistakes, and we can emulate bad characteristics. Accept others' ideas well so that you don't make the same mistakes that they might have made.
    • True role models are those who possess the qualities that we would like to have. Role models are also those who have affected us in a way that makes us want to be better people. Sometimes, we don't recognize people we are emulating until we have noticed our own personal growth and progress that they have caused.
    • warning:
o    Some poorly chosen role models may take advantage of their position and make you do things to make you look bad or a very bad influence to others. Make sure that you don't follow one and emulate someone without thought.
o    Make sure to remember that people are imperfect



Servey Report : Indian youth role model done by agency in 2010 



Bangalore: Unpredictability marks the youth and that’s what the HT- MaRS Youth Survey 2012 has to say – Indian youth are highly unpredictable and their likes and dislikes change the English weather or the next status message on Facebook. The vast reservoir of India’s youth population’s tastes ranges from Kalam's intellect to the charming King Khan and to the cricketing legend Sachin Tendulkar, a replica of contemporary India’s well known contradictions and chaos. Covering 15 cities, the team surveyed thousands of youngsters between the age of 18-21(35470) and between 21-25 years (3474) of which 3506 were males and 3515 females. The sample survey consisted of 3792 full-time students, 1575 part-time employed students and 1654 employed youths.

Neither the recent slapgate dent SRK’s popularity, nor the row over Kudankulam N-plant did hurt Kalam’s image, and obviously not Team India’s poor show in Australia or the endless wait for his hundredth hundred affected Sachin’s fame in the country and they are the top three personalities the Indian youth look up as their best role models. While 15.4 percent voted Shah Rukh Khan as their best role model, APJ Abdul Kalam came second in popularity among the youth with 14.8 percent and Sachin was liked by 11.3 percent in the country. 67 percent chose Shah Rukh  as their role model followed by 26.6 percent from Kolkata. The Badshah of Bollywood registered 5.8 percent in popularity from the previous year. Anna Hazare came fourth with 9.4 percent and Rahul Gandhi in the fifth position with 8 percent of youth’s favorite. Kalam was chosen by 47 percent in Cochin, 22 percent in Bangalor and 31 percent in Jaipur. Sachin is the best icon for 18.3 percent in Calcutta, 16.7 percent in his home town Mumbai and 16.5 in Delhi. Sonia Gandhi, Amitabh Bachchan, Ms Dhoni, Narayan Murthy, Ratan Tata, Mukesh Ambani, Kiren Bedi, Amartya Sen, Pt. Ravi Shankar and Chandra Kochar were the other eminent personalities in country that the youth consider are the role models. 2.6 percent of surveyed youth said they can’t say who their role model is and 1.2 percent did not consider any of the above as their role models.

Not so surprisingly, 28 percent respondents in the survey consider the great orator and the President of the United States Barack Obama as their role model. Breaking the common notion of West Bengal’s blind hatred for the capitalist America, the U.S. President found favour with 43.4 percent of youth from Kolkata who look up to him as their role model followed by 39.6 percent from Indore and 38.5 from Hyderabad and Guwahati. Microsoft’s Founder Bill Gates came second in global role model list with 16.4 percent youngsters voting for him. Interestingly it’s the technology capital of India, Bangalore that topped in the choice of Bill Gates with 34.5 percent youngsters from the city considering him as a role model for them, followed by Chennai at 28.3 percent. Indian business tycoon in UK, Lakshmi Niwas Mittal came third with 13.6 percent voting for him, chosen mainly by Patna yourth (54.5 percent) followed by 39.2 percent of Chandigarh. Tibetan religious figure Dalai Lama, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg, Argentine footballer Lionel Messi, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, The Duchess of Cambridge Kate Middleton and legendary investor Warren Buffett were also voted as role models for many in India. However, 7.2 percent of the respondents said they can’t say who their global role model is and 5.6 percent don’t feel any one of the above can be their role model.
The back to back hits have raised the graph of Salman Khan who 28.1 percent of Indian youth consider the sexiest man alive in India. Salman Khan was chosen by 79 percent from Patna, 44.7 percent in Chandigarh and 39 percent in Ahmedabad. Beating other Bollywood heartthrobs, the youngest Gandhi from the Nehru political dynasty, Rahul Gandhi was ranked second in the list of sexiest men alive in India scoring 14.9 percent of votes, which is an increase of 5.3 percent from 9.6 percent in the previous year. The public face of the congress party was chosen by 52.9 percent of Hyderabad's youth, 34.6 percent in Bhopal and 25.6 in Cahndigarh. Hrithik Roshan came third in the list with 14.7 percent who in fact lost big in popularity as 19.7 percent had considered him sexiest the last year. John Abraham came fourth with 12.1 percent. Justin Beiber, David Beckham, Justin Timberlake, Johnny Depp, Brad Pitt, Robert Pattinson and Ashton Kutcher were the once ranked sexiest globally by Indian youth.



Katrina Kaif was ranked the sexiest women with 33.6 percent of youth in India voting for her and Angelina Jolie came second with 15.3 percent. Bipasha Basu and Jennifer Lopez came third and fourth with 13.9 percent and 7.7 percent respectively. The highest number of votes for Katrina came from Chandigarh with 73.9 percent, then Patna 67 percent and Lucknow 64.5 percent.

[source :hindi one india]

Let time take its course. Creative energies will emerge, as will high–level intuition.


My observation regarding robert greene mastery based on his post at copyblogger dr satyajit sahu diabetic expert diabetic clinic :


There exists a form of power and intelligence that represents the high point of human potential.
It is the source of the greatest achievements and discoveries in history.
It is an intelligence that is not taught in our schools nor analyzed by professors, but almost all of us, at some point, have had glimpses of it in our own experience when we work intensely on a project or under a deadline — under pressure to get results, ideas seem to come to us out of nowhere; we feelmore mentally active and creative.
These powers are something that great masters in all fields experience over long periods of time, and it comes to them through a process of learning and experimentation.
It is a path that all of us can follow.
I discovered the elements of this process after some twelve years of intense study of powerful people and high achievers whom I wrote about in my first four books. In going deep into their stories, I could piece together details that transcended their fields and indicated a universal pathway to power.
Many of the figures I had studied were mediocre students; they often came from poverty or broken homes; their parents or siblings did not display any kind of exceptional ability.
We normally imagine those who achieve great things in the world as somehow possessing a larger brain or some innate talent, giving them the raw materials out of which they can transform themselves into geniuses and Masters. Based on my research and thinking this did not seem to be the case at all. Instead, this intelligence came from the intensity of the desire to learn and the process they went through to develop high–level skill.
I call this power “mastery” and I believe anyone can reach it by following these steps.

Step 1: Discover your calling

All of us are born unique. This uniqueness is marked genetically in our DNA. We are a one-time phenomenon in the Universe — our exact genetic makeup has never occurred before nor will it ever be repeated.
This uniqueness is manifested in early childhood by a primal attraction to some activity or form of learning — music, mechanical skills, sports, games of strategy, observing nature. There is no rational explanation for these childhood attractions.
Such childhood interests spark our deepest curiosity but many of us lose touch with these inclinations. We listen to parents and peers; we choose career paths that promise comfort and money. Because we are not deeply connected to the subject or field we choose to pursue, we do not pay deep attention. Our learning and skill is not exceptional.
Your task in life is to find a way to incorporate these primal inclinations in your career path, to reconnect with what makes you unique and genuinely excites you in life. You will find your calling by thinking back to your childhood, reflecting on these early interests that you may have strayed from. They may be several interests involving several skills. By developing these skills you can then combine them in unusual ways.
For Leonardo da Vinci, his earliest inclinations were towards nature, capturing it on paper, and studying all forms of nature in a scientific manner. He developed deep skills in the arts and sciences and then combined them in a way that makes him completely unique, the preeminent master.
You do not simply give up what you are doing and change course radically. You must find a way to channel the skills you have towards these deep interests. By following your inclinations, you will end up creating or discovering something unique, giving you the ultimate power in a world where the greatest career danger is that you are replaceable.
Remember: the first move toward mastery is always inward — learning who you really are and reconnecting with that innate force. It is never too late to start this process.
[drsatyajit sahu - my calling is first obviously medicine practice,second in spiritual practice ]

Step 2: Apprentice with intensity

After discovering your Life’s Task, you enter the most critical phase in your life — a practical education known as The Apprenticeship.
In the stories of the greatest Masters, past and present, we can inevitably detect a phase in their lives in which all of their future powers were in development, like the chrysalis of a butterfly. By looking at their various paths we can deduce an ideal apprenticeship that transcends their fields and indicates something essential about the brain and how we learn.
Your first move is to look for places of work and positions that offer the greatest possibilities for learning. Practical knowledge is the ultimate commodity, and is what will pay you dividends for decades to come — far more than the paltry increase in pay you might receive at some seemingly lucrative position that offers fewer learning opportunities.
This means that you move toward challenges that will toughen and improve you, where you will get the most objective feedback on your performance and progress. You do not choose apprenticeships that seem easy and comfortable.
The great danger in the beginning is the temptation to try to gain attention, to prove yourself before you are ready. Instead you must take a step back — your goal is to transform yourself into a consummate observer. You learn the rules that prevail in your profession and the skills that are really necessary to rise from within. You find mentors who can instruct you best, their experience becoming yours.
In the end, by observing, learning, and practicing you will gain the right kind of attention — you will be seen as someone who is serious and disciplined.
In all fields, the key to ultimate success is acquiring as many skills as possible. This could be something physical such as operating tools or machines, or something more nebulous — the ability to research and organize information, or managing people. Whatever the case, at the outset, it is essential that you begin with one skill that you can master, and that serves as a foundation for acquiring others.
If you take this far enough, you will naturally enter the cycle of accelerated returns: As you learn and gain skills you can begin to vary what you do, finding nuances that you can develop in the work. Elements become automatic and you can practice harder, which in turn brings greater skill and more pleasure.
In the last step of the apprenticeship phase, you must make the move to a more active mode of experimentation. You find ways to take what you have learned and apply it in some way — a project you put your name on, for instance. In these first attempts at moving out on your own, you are looking for feedback from those above you and the public. You are apprenticing in the ability to handle criticism and developing a tough skin.
You will know your apprenticeship is over when you feel you have nothing left to learn in this particular environment.
[Dr Satyajit Sahu- see i am still learning the medicine and spirituality under my mentors ] 

Step 3: Gain social intelligence

Often the greatest obstacle to our pursuit of mastery comes from the emotional drain we experience in dealing with the resistance and manipulation of the people around us. We misread their intentions and react in ways that cause confusion or conflict.
Social intelligence is the ability to see people in the most realistic light possible. The first step in acquiring social intelligence is to realize that you tend to project your own emotions on to other people, to see into them qualities that you want or need to see. It is only by being aware of how deeply you distort these perceptions that you can correct this naive tendency.
Social intelligence is a twofold process.
First, you must learn to read people in the moment, seeing them as individuals and trying to gain an understanding of them from the inside out. Such empathy will prove invaluable in being able to persuade or seduce them. You gain this intuitive feel by cutting off your ego, the voice inside your head, and listening and observing more deeply.
At the same time, you must accumulate knowledge on human nature, on the common traits and weaknesses that we all possess — such as envy, insecurity, laziness, passive aggression. With such knowledge you can avoid becoming the victim of the sharks in the water.
Secondly, you must also learn how to see yourself as others see you, using them as a mirror to help correct your own social flaws. In the end, you must also be able to suffer fools gladly, to deal with the many incompetent and foolish people who will cross your path. Getting angry at people’s foolishness will needlessly drain you of energy and desire.
Understand: navigating the social environment is a prerequisite — success attained without this intelligence is not true mastery, and will not last.
[Dr Satyajit Sahu - these is really a special intelligence and it came to me with observation and definitely with lot of practice and sill learning it through various methods ]

Step 4: Awaken creative energy

As you accumulate more skills and internalize the rules that govern your field, your mind will want to become more active, seeking to use this knowledge in ways that are more suited to your inclinations.
The key to awakening this creative energy is to maintain a fluid, open mind, one that is continually looking for connections between ideas and novel perspectives on problems.
After a lengthy apprenticeship, the counter tendency is to become conservative with what you know, to follow the paths others have forged. You have to force yourself from this position, continually challenging your own assumptions and not being afraid of failure or the criticisms that will come from experimenting with what you have learned.
You must be aware of the primary law of the creative dynamic — namely, the energy and excitement you put into your work will be translated into the final results.
If you are primarily motivated by money or the need for attention, the public will read this into the work and they will be suitably unimpressed. If you feel a deep connection to what you are investigating or expressing, this will resonate with others and bring you much more money and attention in the long run.
The endgame here is to mix your years of discipline and practice with a bold and original spirit. One without the other will lead you nowhere.
[Dr Satyajit Sahu - Creative energy unleashes in term of Diabetic Clinic  exclusively and trying to figure out more addition to it ]

Step 5: Develop high–level intuition

Throughout history we read of Masters in every conceivable form of human endeavor describing a sensation of suddenly possessing heightened intellectual powers after years of immersion in their field.
By intense absorption in a particular field over a long period of time, Masters come to understand all of the parts involved in what they are studying. They reach a point where all of this has become internalized and they are no longer seeing the parts:
  • The great chess Master Bobby Fischer spoke of being able to think beyond the various moves of his pieces on the chessboard; after awhile he could see “fields of forces” that allowed him to anticipate the entire direction of the match.
  • Albert Einstein suddenly was able to realize not just the answer to a problem, but a whole new way of looking at the universe, contained in a visual image he intuited.
  • The inventor Thomas Edison spoke of a vision he had for illuminating an entire city with electric light, this complex system communicated to him through a single image.
In all of these instances, these Masters experienced the power of intuition, or a fingertip feel.
All of us have access to this higher form of intelligence, one that can allow us to see more of the world, to anticipate trends, to respond with speed and accuracy to any circumstance. This intelligence is cultivated by deeply immersing ourselves in a field of study and staying true to our inclinations, no matter how unconventional our approach might seem to others.
The ability to have this intuitive grasp of the whole and feel this dynamic is simply a function of time. Since it has been shown that the brain is literally altered after approximately 10,000 hours of practice, these powers would be the result of a transformation that happens in the brain after some 20,000 hours and beyond. With this much practice and experience, all kinds of connections have been formed in the brain between different forms of knowledge.
In moving through these various steps, with an intense energy, you must have faith that these intuitive powers will come to you over time. The ability to sense the overall dynamic in any situation, to foresee problems and solutions before anyone else will bring you to the heights of power.
[Dr Satyajit Sahu - High level of intuition is something  which time will tell whether i got it or not  ]

The path to mastery

The path to mastery is relatively simple.
The first move is the most important: follow a career route that is matched to your inclinations and interests. Develop skills in as many areas related to this interest as possible. Work with mentors to streamline the process. Discipline yourself, gaining self–mastery. Learn how to work with people and defend yourself against the aggressors.
Then, let time take its course. Creative energies will emerge, as will high–level intuition.
There are no shortcuts; the path can take many years and involve numerous setbacks and detours. But in the end the payoff is immense.
You are no longer replaceable. You are one of a kind, a Master of your field and of your destiny.
[Dr Satyajit Sahu - let time take its course. Creative energies will emerge, as will high–level intuition. There are no shortcuts; the path can take many years and involve numerous setbacks and detours. But in the end the payoff is immense.]
source:copyblogger.com/robert-greene-mastery/